The function of Vitamin A is to keep healthy the epithelium or linings of mucous membrane throughout the body. If these are not maintained, surfaces grow rough and horny – keritinisation is the technical term for this condition – and fail to secrete sufficient fluid. At first, the conjunctiva of the eyes becomes affected resulting in night blindness. Horses are likely to stumble and fall in the dark. Later, the linings of the nose, throat, respiratory canal, intestinal tract and urinary tract, becomes affected. They become clogged with dead horny cells in which all sorts of dangerous microorganisms flourish.
The vitamin A in Castlereagh Feeds provides the body’s first line of defence against disease and infection. Some affected horses show a slight discharge from one or both nostrils. There may be profuse watering from the eyes with reddening and swelling of they eyes. Horses work sluggish. Brood mares fail to breed. A notable feature is the production of faulty hoof growth. A dry, scaly type of hoof is left as a band. Scurfy conditions of the skin are also a prominent feature. The disease runs a slow course and if treatment is not effected, usually more and more horses become affected. If there is not enough Vitamin A in the diet, growth is slowed and retarded. Legs become weak, resulting in an unsteady gait. Horses continually lose weight in spite of full feed. It also causes infertility and lowering of resistance to disease and infection.
To prevent the occurrence of Vitamin A deficiency, Castlereagh Feeds are fortified with pure Vitamin A at the level of 4400-8630 I.U per kg of pellets, depending on individual ration.
The first symptom of Vitamin B deficiency is loss of appetite. The horse will not eat. They suffer form insomnia and are nervous and therefore have a tendency to be jumpy. Frequently, horses are immobilised by cramps and may lose their balance and stagger around aimlessly. The paralysis commences with the feet and progresses upward, affecting the legs and eventually the neck. There may be a reddening of the lips, around the nose and the corners of the mouth, together with salivation and running eyes and a thickening of the eyelids which tend to become stuck shut.
The animal does not thrive; the skin is scurfy and has a rough coat and diarrhoea. Symptoms of dermatitis may be coupled with the loss of hair. Slow and progressive wasting of muscular tissues occurs and horses continually lose weight despite full feed. Reproduction and lactation are impaired and abortions may occur. Anemia of varying severity may develop and deficient horses may start to eat their own excreta at the risk of worm infection. A peculiar kind of heart trouble develops in which the right side of the heart grows enlarged and the rate of the heart beat rises unnaturally.
The function of Vitamin B in Castlereagh Feeds is to prevent circulatory trouble, maintain good appetite and maintain the normal working of the nervous system. The vitamins are also required for the metabolism of fats, starches, sugars and proteins. They are vital for a shiny coat, bone formation, normal functioning of the body and good health. The Vitamin B in Castlereagh Feeds is necessary for enzyme functioning, the oxidation of the glucose, maintenance of the adrenal gland, cell multiplication and growth. The vitamins are also required for the production of blood cells as well as for the detoxification of many harmful substances in the body.
To prevent the occurrence of any Vitamin B deficiency, Castlereagh Feeds are fortified with pure Vitamin B at the following levels:
At first horses may become fatigued with a chronic disinclination to exercise. The body may start to ache and swell. Tiny haemorrhage spots may appear under the skin. Blood vessels rupture and may result in internal bleeding. The gums become soft and spongy, they may ulcerate and bleed. Bad breath may be noticed. Bones become brittle and may fracture easily.
The vitamin C in Castlereagh Feeds produces and maintains intercellular material which bonds individual cells into tissue structures. The blood vessels become porous, and let the blood through; muscles weaken, and become paralysed. Mineral salts drain away from the bones and cartilages grow so weak that they won’t hold the joints together, the walls of the lungs cave in, anemia develops in the cells of the bone marrow, tissues degenerate and wounds refuse to heal.
To prevent the occurrence of any vitamin C deficiency, Castlereagh Feeds are fortified with pure vitamin C at the level of 0-5.5mg per kg of pellets, depending on individual ration.
Rickets is a condition where the growing bones in young horses fail to calcify or harden properly due to a deficiency of Vitamin D. The bone grows away from the cartilage located between the ends and the shaft of the bone. This cartilage proliferates and, in normal animals, calcifies but in rickets cases, the cartilage produces soft osteoid tissues in excessive amounts, which does not calcify normally, but produces the typical enlargements near the joints. The knee, hock and junction of the lower parts of the ribs with the cartilage are very noticeably enlarged. The swollen joint cartilages may be eroded and is therefore tender, movement being restricted. The shafts of the bones bend outwards, giving marked bow-leggedness. Stiffness, lameness, weakness and finally posterior paralysis are seen in severe cases.
The Vitamin D in Castlereagh Feeds facilitates the absorption of Calcium and Phosphorus from the intestine and controls the incorporation of these elements into the skeleton from the blood. Without enough Vitamin D the calcium in the diet cannot be made use of.
To prevent the occurrence of Rickets, Castlereagh Feeds are fortified with pure Vitamin E at the level of 22-50 I.U. per kg of pellets, depending on individual ration.
Vitamin K, is required by the body, in the formation of prothrombin. Prothrombin is an essential link in the chain of blood clotting and therefore a deficiency of Vitamin K, upsetting prothrombin production will lead to affecting horses, particularly mares, haemorrhaging from any slight scratch or bruise. In advanced cases, spontaneous bleeding may occur and horses sometimes are known to bleed to death.
The Vitamin K in Castlereagh Feeds will promote blood clotting and coagulation.
To prevent the occurrence of haemorrhaging, Castlereagh Feeds are fortified with pure Vitamin K at the level of 0-5.5 mg per kg of pellets, depending on individual ration.